Resources

Glossary

Accessibility   – The ease with which desired activities can be reached from any particular location by physical connections (roads, sidewalks, buses, etc.), travel options, and development proximity.

Acre-foot – The volume of water required to coover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot. Equal to 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851 gallons, or 1,233 cubic meters.

Aquifier – A saturated water-bearing formation (comprised of various geographic layers such as sand, gravel, silt, sandstone and limestone containing pores or voids), or group of formations, that yield water in sufficient quantity to be of consequence as a source of supply.

Beneficial use – Use of water – such as domestic, municipal, agricultural, mining, industrial, stock watering, recreation, wildlife, artificial recharge, power generation or contamination remediation – that proveds a benefit. Water rights not put to beneficial use are subject to ferfeiture. Historically, very few uses of water have been declared nonbeneficial by courts.

Built Environment – In planning terms, the built environment consists of all buildings, roads, utilities, homes, fixtures, parks, and all other improvements that form the physical character of a city.

City Master Plan – Preparatory development plan to guide policies, growth and development of the city, including analysis, recommendations and proposals for the community, economy, housing. Transportation, utilities, public facilities and land use arenormally implemented by zoning according to use and function.

Community character – Community character is the image of a community or area asdefined by such factors as its built environment, natural features and open space elements, type of housing, architectural style, infrastructure, and type/quality of public facilities and services.

Community Design (also called Urban design) – The process of giving form, in terms of both function and aesthetic beauty, to selected urban area sort o whole cities. It is concerned with the location, mass, and design of various urban components and combines elements of urban planning, architecture, and landscape architecture.

Compact – An agreement between states apportioning the water of a river basing to each of the signatory states. Approval by congress is required.

Connectivity – Refers to the street and sidewalk infrastructure and the ease of travel between origins and destinations.

Developed or imported water – Water brought into a stream system from another, unconnected source, such as transmountain diversion water or nontributary well water. This type of water can be reused and successively used to extinction and is often used in augmentation or exchange plans. In contrast, native basin water is subject to one use, and the return flow belongs to the stream system to fill other appropriations unless a decree was obtained for the right to reuse and successively use return flows.

Green corridor – Narrow tract of land forming a passageway, following transportation networks.

Groundwater – Water that occurs in the open spaces below the surface of the earth.

Healthy People 2010 – A program of the Department of Health and Human Services, HP 2010 is a nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda. Its primary goals are to increase the quality andof life and to minimize health disparities among Americans.

Health promotion – Health promotion means the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health.

Impact fees – Fees that must be paid by developers of new homes and subdivisions to pay for town facilities such as schools and parks.

Injection well – Well used for injecting water or other fluid into a groundwater aquifier.

Injury prevention – Injury prevention strategies focus primarily on environmental design (e.g. safe road design), product design, human behavior, education, and legislative and regulatory requirements that support environmental and behavioral change.

Land use pattern – Result of the spatial arrangement and distribution of individual land-uses. A distinction can be made between land use, which entails built development (residential zones, commercial zones, land for transport and communications, etc.) and land use where building is restricted (green areas, forest, agriculture).

Land use plan – Long-range preparatory development plan to guide the policies, growth and development of a community, which include analysis, recommendations and proposals for the community’s population, economy, housing, transportation, utilities, public facilities, and land use, implemented by zoning. (Synonyms: structure plan, community development plan, city master plan)

Low-density land use – Buildings usually have fewer stories and are spaced furtherapart separated by lawns, landscaping, roadways or parking lots. Lots of land are larger and because of the greater use of automobiles much more land is designated for parking. The impact of low density development in many communities is that developed or “urbanized” land is increasing at a faster rate than the population. In some places a population increase of one or two percent can produce an increase in developed land of as much as thirty percent. Sprawl consumes much more land than traditional developments because new developments are of low density.

Mobility – The capacity to cover distances using certain means of transport (on foot, by bicycle, motorbike, car, public transport). Indicators of mobility are:

• activities outside the home,
• journey time,
• number of trips taken – distance covered.

New Urbanism – New Urbanism is a planning and urban design movement begun in the mid-1980s that aim store integrate the components of modern life -housing, workplace, shopping and Recreation- into compact, pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use neighborhoods linked by transit and set in a larger regional open space framework.

Nontributary groundwater – Groundwater outside the boundaries of any designated groundwater basin, the withdrawal of which will not, within 100 years, deplete the flow of a natural stream at an annual rate greater than one-tenth of 1 percent of the annual rate of withdrawl.

Obesity – Obesity is defined as an excessively high amount of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass.

Open Space – Area or plot of ground predominantly free of buildings in an urban region, which is sometimes protected from development by government action to provide for outdoor recreation.

Pedestrian friendly – In basic terms, pedestrian friendly describes a street that has sidewalks on both sides of the roadway and has safe crossings. In broader terms, it denotes a street, neighborhood, or city that supports, through planning and zoning, the location of stores, offices, residences, schools, recreational areas, and other public facilities within walking distance of each other. Such areas also often feature narrow streets, street trees, awnings, covered transit shelters, benches, brick paving or other less conventional paving types, among other elements.

Planning – Process involved in the creation of solutions and goal-oriented concepts particularly with regards to the future use of land.

Planning department – A department of the municipal government of the cityconsisting of a planning board, a planning director and requiredsubordinate employees.

Public health – Public health is a set of organized interdisciplinary efforts to protect, promote, and restore the public’s health. It is the combination of assessment, policy development and assurance that is directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all people through collective or social actions. The mission of public health is to promote physical, mental and environmental health and prevent disease, injury and disability.

Revitalization – Aim and result of measures that restore the vitality of an abandoned landscape, a neglected park, a run-down street,etc. and increase their attractiveness.

Senior appropriator – Owner of a surface-water right whose right was acquired prior to other rights holders on the same stream.

Single-use zoning – It occurs when tracts of land are devoted to the same type of development. Commercial, residential, and industrial areas are separated from one another. Large Zoning areas are segregated from one another by roads, green space, or other barriers. As a result, the places where people live, work, shop, and recreate are necessarily far apart from one another.

Stakeholder – Individual people or groups who have an interest or a claim on particular issue.

Sustainable design – Sustainable design is development which honors nature, conserves resources, and provides community services and infrastructure without unnecessary duplication, and without limiting the resources available to future generations.

Traditional Neighborhood Development – Traditional neighborhood development (TND), is development that exhibits several or all of the following characteristics: alleys, streets laid out in a grid system, buildings oriented to the street, front porches on houses, pedestrian orientation, compatible and mixed land uses, village squares and greens. (See also New Urbanism)

Traffic calming – Traffic calming means a strategic set of physical changes to streets to reduce vehicles speeds and volumes. It refers to the use of street design techniques, such as curb extensions, traffic circles and speed humps, to slow and control the flow of Automobile traffic.

Urban sprawl – The expansive, rapid, and sometimes reckless, growth of a greater metropolitan area, traditionally suburbs (or exurbs) over a large area. Urban sprawl has the following characteristics: single-use zoning, low-density land use, auto- centric communities, up-sizing, and homogeneity.

Water right – A property right to the use of a portion of the public’s surface or tributary groundwater resource obtained under applicable legal procedures. Water rights can be passed with a conveyance of land by deed, lease mortgage, will or inheritance.

Watershed – Fresh water as runoff from surface sources or through the recharge of groundwater.

Zoning – Zoning is a system of land use regulation which designates the permitted uses of land. Theoretically, its primary purpose is to segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible. In practice, zoning is used as a permitting system to prevent new development from harming existing residents or businesses. Zoning commonly includes regulation of the kinds of activities which will be acceptable on particular lots (such as open space, residential, agricultural, commercial or industrial), the densities at which those activities can be performed (low density housing such as single family homes to high density such as apartment buildings), the height of buildings, the amount of space structures may occupy by limiting how close a building may be from the edge of the lot, the proportions of the types of space on a lot (for example, how much landscaped space and how much paved space), and how much parking must be provided.